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Abbreviations used in medical prescriptions in India

For 20+ years I’ve been used to printed instructions from the pharmacist to tell me how and when to take medicines. In India, however, an older model continues – the following terms are used:

OD – Daily
BD – Twice a day
TDS (or TD or TID) – Three times a day
BBF – before breakfast


2p – Two Puffs/metered doses of an inhaler
4h (also qqh OR 4′)  – Every four hours (number indicated number of hours)
AC – Before food
BEY – Both eyes
BNO – Both nostrils
CC – With food
HS (Hora somni) – at night before bed time
LE/RE – Left eye/Right eye
MDU (or MD or UT) – As directed by the prescriber
MN (sometimes appears as NM) – Morning and night
OM (or M) – In the morning
ON (or N) – At night
PC – After food
PO – Administer orally
PR – Administer anally/rectally (unless this seems odd, as PRN may mean when required, this should be obvious however as the item will not be a suppository or enema)
PRN – When required
PV – Administer vaginally
QDS (or QD) – Four times a day
SOS – whenever necessity for relief



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Hematuria with heparin in a cancer patient


This situation demonstrates the drawbacks of using LMWH in patients with renal failure. It also emphasizes the need to calculate creatinine clearance (CrCl), rather than just serum creatinine in elderly and frail patients. The calculated creatinine clearance in this case is 21 ml/min. At such low ranges of creatinine clearance, LMWH can cause hemorrhaging and should not be used.
It is recommended that UFH be used to provide full anticoagulation therapy in patients with severe renal insufficiency. If LMWH is chosen, monitoring should be performed with therapeutic anti-factor Xa activity. The lowest ratio of CrCl levels for patients in this indication category probably varies for different LMWHs, but a safe threshold is likely to be 30 mL/min.
This also seems to have a  lot of information:
Significant pathological findings consisting of carcinoma, calculi, renal infarction, infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia and/or adult polycystic renal disease. A thorough and appropriate evaluation of the urinary tract should be conducted in patients on anticoagulant therapy who have gross or microscopic hematuria, since a pathological lesion of variable clinical significance often is discovered. [Source]


Clinical Bottom Line:  Adult patients on anticoagulant therapy presenting to the Emergency Department with haematuria require complete genitourinary system investigation. [Source]

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