Sanjeev Sabhlok's notes on technology, hardware, gardening

Category: Uncategorized

“This public profile is not visible.” Facebook group “like” widget not working

Since a few days my FB group widgets are not working (http://sabhlokcity.com/on-facebook/). This is a common problem, due to a bug in the Facebook system.

To ensure that sufficient number of FB developers get to know this problem, please go to: http://bugs.developers.facebook.net/show_bug.cgi?id=17873

Then create an account and increase the number of votes. Also provide a description of your own problem.

That way someone will start fixing it. There's no point complaining in ether (e.g.here  or here ).

Continue Reading

UNIX commands. UNIX refresher. UNIX key commands

My google document on UNIX here.

 

find all files after a date: 

#Create an empty file based on date you are looking for, following format is: YYYYMMDDhhmm

touch -t 200609010001 testfile

find . -newer testfile >list

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Unix_programs

Unix scripting

First, understand that Unix doesn't need ".bat" or any other extension. You can call it myfile.bat if that makes you warm and fuzzy, but you don't need to. Unix will execute a file if its permissions include the "execute" bit. So, to create a script file that contains commands you want to run:

Create the file. You can use the GUI Text Editor, vi (see VI Primer) or even something as simple as this:

cat > myscript

(type your commands)

(as many lines as you want)

(end with CTRL-D on a line by itself)

The file needs to be marked executable- if everyone should be able to run it, do:

chmod 755 myscript

If the script is placed in a directory included in your PATH (see Why can't I run this program? above), typing "myscript" will now run those commands.

SOME COMMON COMMANDS

Copied from the internet for my personal convenience. 

  • cat — for creating and displaying short files
  • chmod — change permissions
  • cd — change directory
  • cp — for copying files
  • date — display date
  • echo — echo argument
  • ftp — connect to a remote machine to download or upload files
  • grep — search file
  • head — display first part of file
  • ls — see what files you have
  • lpr — standard print command (see also print )
  • more — use to read files
  • mkdir — create directory
  • mv — for moving and renaming files
  • ncftp — especially good for downloading files via anonymous ftp.
  • print — custom print command (see also lpr )
  • pwd — find out what directory you are in
  • rm — remove a file
  • rmdir — remove directory
  • rsh — remote shell
  • setenv — set an environment variable
  • sort — sort file
  • tail — display last part of file
  • tar — create an archive, add or extract files
  • telnet — log in to another machine
  • wc — count characters, words, lines

login: `Logging in'
ssh: Connect to another machine
logout: `Logging out'


File Management

emacs: `Using the emacs text editor'
mkdir: `Creating a directory'
cd: `Changing your current working directory'
ls: `Finding out what files you have'
cp: `Making a copy of a file'
mv: `Changing the name of a file'
rm: `Getting rid of unwanted files'
chmod: `Controlling access to your files'
cmp: Comparing two files
wc: Word, line, and character count
compress: Compress a file


Communication

e-mail: `Sending and receiving electronic mail'
talk: Talk to another user
write: Write messages to another user
sftp: Secure file transfer protocol


Information

man: Manual pages
quota -v: Finding out your available disk space quota
ical: `Using the Ical personal organizer'
finger: Getting information about a user
passwd: Changing your password
who: Finding out who's logged on


Printing

lpr: `Printing'
lprm: Removing a print job
lpq: Checking the print queues

 

 

Files
  • ls — lists your files 
    ls -l — lists your files in 'long format', which contains lots of useful information, e.g. the exact size of the file, who owns the file and who has the right to look at it, and when it was last modified. 
    ls -a — lists all files, including the ones whose filenames begin in a dot, which you do not always want to see. 
    There are many more options, for example to list files by size, by date, recursively etc.
  • more filename — shows the first part of a file, just as much as will fit on one screen. Just hit the space bar to see more or q to quit. You can use /pattern to search for a pattern.
  • emacs filename — is an editor that lets you create and edit a file. See the emacs page.
  • mv filename1 filename2 — moves a file (i.e. gives it a different name, or moves it into a different directory (see below)
  • cp filename1 filename2 — copies a file
  • rm filename — removes a file. It is wise to use the option rm -i, which will ask you for confirmation before actually deleting anything. You can make this your default by making an alias in your .cshrc file.
  • diff filename1 filename2 — compares files, and shows where they differ
  • wc filename — tells you how many lines, words, and characters there are in a file
  • chmod options filename — lets you change the read, write, and execute permissions on your files. The default is that only you can look at them and change them, but you may sometimes want to change these permissions. For example, chmod o+rfilename will make the file readable for everyone, and chmod o-r filename will make it unreadable for others again. Note that for someone to be able to actually look at the file the directories it is in need to be at least executable. See help protection for more details.
  • File Compression

    • gzip filename — compresses files, so that they take up much less space. Usually text files compress to about half their original size, but it depends very much on the size of the file and the nature of the contents. There are other tools for this purpose, too (e.g. compress), but gzip usually gives the highest compression rate. Gzip produces files with the ending '.gz' appended to the original filename.
    • gunzip filename — uncompresses files compressed by gzip.
    • gzcat filename — lets you look at a gzipped file without actually having to gunzip it (same as gunzip -c). You can even print it directly, using gzcat filename | lpr
  • printing

    • lpr filename — print. Use the -P option to specify the printer name if you want to use a printer other than your default printer. For example, if you want to print double-sided, use 'lpr -Pvalkyr-d', or if you're at CSLI, you may want to use 'lpr -Pcord115-d'. See 'help printers' for more information about printers and their locations.
    • lpq — check out the printer queue, e.g. to get the number needed for removal, or to see how many other files will be printed before yours will come out
    • lprm jobnumber — remove something from the printer queue. You can find the job number by using lpq. Theoretically you also have to specify a printer name, but this isn't necessary as long as you use your default printer in the department.
    • genscript — converts plain text files into postscript for printing, and gives you some options for formatting. Consider making an alias like alias ecop 'genscript -2 -r \!* | lpr -h -Pvalkyr' to print two pages on one piece of paper.
    • dvips filename — print .dvi files (i.e. files produced by LaTeX). You can use dviselect to print only selected pages. See the LaTeX page for more information about how to save paper when printing drafts.
Directories

Directories, like folders on a Macintosh, are used to group files together in a hierarchical structure.

  • mkdir dirname — make a new directory
  • cd dirname — change directory. You basically 'go' to another directory, and you will see the files in that directory when you do 'ls'. You always start out in your 'home directory', and you can get back there by typing 'cd' without arguments. 'cd ..' will get you one level up from your current position. You don't have to walk along step by step – you can make big leaps or avoid walking around by specifying pathnames.
  • pwd — tells you where you currently are.
Finding things
  • ff — find files anywhere on the system. This can be extremely useful if you've forgotten in which directory you put a file, but do remember the name. In fact, if you use ff -p you don't even need the full name, just the beginning. This can also be useful for finding other things on the system, e.g. documentation.
  • grep string filename(s) — looks for the string in the files. This can be useful a lot of purposes, e.g. finding the right file among many, figuring out which is the right version of something, and even doing serious corpus work. grep comes in several varieties (grepegrep, and fgrep) and has a lot of very flexible options. Check out the man pages if this sounds good to you.
About other people
  • w — tells you who's logged in, and what they're doing. Especially useful: the 'idle' part. This allows you to see whether they're actually sitting there typing away at their keyboards right at the moment.
  • who — tells you who's logged on, and where they're coming from. Useful if you're looking for someone who's actually physically in the same building as you, or in some other particular location.
  • finger username — gives you lots of information about that user, e.g. when they last read their mail and whether they're logged in. Often people put other practical information, such as phone numbers and addresses, in a file called .plan. This information is also displayed by 'finger'.
  • last -1 username — tells you when the user last logged on and off and from where. Without any options, last will give you a list of everyone's logins.
  • talk username — lets you have a (typed) conversation with another user
  • write username — lets you exchange one-line messages with another user
  • elm — lets you send e-mail messages to people around the world (and, of course, read them). It's not the only mailer you can use, but the one we recommend. See the elm page, and find out about the departmental mailing lists (which you can also find in /user/linguistics/helpfile).
About your (electronic) self
  • whoami — returns your username. Sounds useless, but isn't. You may need to find out who it is who forgot to log out somewhere, and make sure *you* have logged out.
  • finger & .plan files 
    of course you can finger yourself, too. That can be useful e.g. as a quick check whether you got new mail. Try to create a useful .plan file soon. Look at other people's .plan files for ideas. The file needs to be readable for everyone in order to be visible through 'finger'. Do 'chmod a+r .plan' if necessary. You should realize that this information is accessible from anywhere in the world, not just to other people on turing.
  • passwd — lets you change your password, which you should do regularly (at least once a year). See the LRB guide and/or look at help password.
  • ps -u yourusername — lists your processes. Contains lots of information about them, including the process ID, which you need if you have to kill a process. Normally, when you have been kicked out of a dialin session or have otherwise managed to get yourself disconnected abruptly, this list will contain the processes you need to kill. Those may include the shell (tcsh or whatever you're using), and anything you were running, for example emacs or elm. Be careful not to kill your current shell – the one with the number closer to the one of the ps command you're currently running. But if it happens, don't panic. Just try again 🙂 If you're using an X-display you may have to kill some X processes before you can start them again. These will show only when you use ps -efl, because they're root processes.
  • kill PID — kills (ends) the processes with the ID you gave. This works only for your own processes, of course. Get the ID by using ps. If the process doesn't 'die' properly, use the option -9. But attempt without that option first, because it doesn't give the process a chance to finish possibly important business before dying. You may need to kill processes for example if your modem connection was interrupted and you didn't get logged out properly, which sometimes happens.
  • quota -v — show what your disk quota is (i.e. how much space you have to store files), how much you're actually using, and in case you've exceeded your quota (which you'll be given an automatic warning about by the system) how much time you have left to sort them out (by deleting or gzipping some, or moving them to your own computer).
  • du filename — shows the disk usage of the files and directories in filename (without argument the current directory is used). du -s gives only a total.
  • last yourusername — lists your last logins. Can be a useful memory aid for when you were where, how long you've been working for, and keeping track of your phonebill if you're making a non-local phonecall for dialling in.
Connecting to the outside world
  • nn — allows you to read news. It will first let you read the news local to turing, and then the remote news. If you want to read only the local or remote news, you can use nnl or nnr, respectively. To learn more about nn type nn, then \tty{:man}, then \tty{=.*}, then \tty{Z}, then hit the space bar to step through the manual. Or look at the man page. Or check out the hypertext nn FAQ – probably the easiest and most fun way to go.
  • rlogin hostname — lets you connect to a remote host
  • telnet hostname — also lets you connect to a remote host. Use rlogin whenever possible.
  • ftp hostname — lets you download files from a remote host which is set up as an ftp-server. This is a common method for exchanging academic papers and drafts. If you need to make a paper of yours available in this way, you can (temporarily) put a copy in /user/ftp/pub/TMP. For more permanent solutions, ask Emma. The most important commands within ftp are get for getting files from the remote machine, and put for putting them there (mget and mput let you specify more than one file at once). Sounds straightforward, but be sure not to confuse the two, especially when your physical location doesn't correspond to the direction of the ftp connection you're making. ftp just overwrites files with the same filename. If you're transferring anything other than ASCII text, use binary mode.
  • lynx — lets you browse the web from an ordinary terminal. Of course you can see only the text, not the pictures. You can type any URL as an argument to the G command. When you're doing this from any Stanford host you can leave out the.stanford.edu part of the URL when connecting to Stanford URLs. Type H at any time to learn more about lynx, and Q to exit.
Miscellaneous tools
  • webster word — looks up the word in an electronic version of Webster's dictionary and returns the definition(s)
  • date — shows the current date and time.
  • cal — shows a calendar of the current month. Use e.g., 'cal 10 1995' to get that for October 95, or 'cal 1995' to get the whole year.

 

Name
Description
alias
Create an alias for a command sequence, see csh(1)
apropos
locate commands by keyword lookup
banner
display a string in large letters
bc
arbitrary-precision arithmetic language
bg
Run a suspended job in the background, see csh(1)
cal
display a calendar
cancel
send/cancel requests to a printer
cat
concatenate and display
cc
C compiler
cd
change working directory
chgrp
change the group ownership of a file
chmod
change the permissions mode of a file
chsh
change local or NIS password information
clear
clear the terminal screen
compress
compress or expand files
cp
copy files
crontab
install, edit, remove or list a user's crontab file
csh
shell with a C-like syntax and advanced interactive features
date
display or set the date
dbx
source-level debugger
df
report free disk space on file systems
diff
display line-by-line differences between pairs of text files
dircmp
compare directories
dirs
Display the directory stack, see csh(1)
dos2unix
convert text file from DOS format to ISO format
du
display the number of disk blocks used per directory or file
echo
echo arguments to the standard output
egrep
search a file for a string or regular expression
eject
eject media device from drive
exec
Execute a command in place of the current shell, see csh(1)
exit
Exit the current shell, see csh(1)
fdformat
format diskettes
fg
Resume executing a suspended job in the foreground, see csh(1)
fgrep
search a file for a string or regular expression
file
determine the type of a file by examining its contents
find
find files by name, or by other characteristics
finger
display information about users
from
display the sender and date of newly-arrived mail messages
ftp
file transfer program
grep
search a file for a string or regular expression
groups
display a user's group memberships
head
display first few lines of specified files
history
Display recently typed commands, see csh(1)
hostid
print the numeric identifier of the current host
hostname
set or print name of current host system
id
print the user name and ID, and group name and ID
jobs
List jobs suspended or backgrounded from this shell, see csh(1)
kill
send a signal to a process, or terminate a process
last
indicate last logins by user or terminal
limit
Set or display resource limits, see csh(1)
line
read one line
lint
a C program verifier
ln
make hard or symbolic links to files
login
log in to the system
logname
get the name by which you logged in
logout
Terminate a login shell, see csh(1)
lp
send/cancel requests to a printer
lpq
display the queue of printer jobs
lpr
send a job to the printer
lprm
remove jobs from the printer queue
lpstat
display the printer status information
ls
list the contents of a directory
mach
display the processor type of the current host
man
display reference manual pages
mesg
permit or deny messages on the terminal
mkdir
make a directory
more
browse or page through a text file
mv
move or rename files
newgrp
log in to a new group
nice
run a command at low priority
passwd
change local or password information
popd
Pop the directory stack, see csh(1)
printenv
display environment variables currently set
ps
display the status of current processes
pushd
Push a directory onto the directory stack, see csh(1)
pwd
display the pathname of the current working directory
quota
display a user's disk quota and usage
rehash
Rescan the execution path, see csh(1)
reset
establish or restore terminal characteristics
rlogin
remote login
rm
remove (unlink) files or directories
rmdir
remove (unlink) files or directories
rsh
remote shell
rup
show host status of local machines (RPC version)
ruptime
show host status of local machines
rusers
who's logged in on local machines (RPC version)
rwall
write to all users over a network
rwho
who's logged in on local machines
script
make typescript of a terminal session
setenv
Set or display environment variables, see csh(1)
set
Set or display shell variables, see csh(1)
sh
standard UNIX system shell and command-level language
sleep
suspend execution for a specified interval
sort
sort and collate lines
source
Read commands from a file, see csh(1)
spell
report spelling errors
spellin
report spelling errors
strings
find printable strings in an object file or binary
strip
remove symbols and relocation bits from an object file
stty
set or alter the options for a terminal
su
super-user, temporarily switch to a new user ID
suspend
Suspend the shell, see csh(1)
sync
update the super block; force changed blocks to the disk
tail
display the last part of a file
talk
talk to another user
tar
create tape archives, and add or extract files
telnet
user interface to a remote system using the TELNET protocol
time
time a command
touch
update the access and modification times of a file
trace
trace system calls and signals
tset
establish or restore terminal characteristics
tty
display the name of the terminal
umask
Set or display the file permissions mask, see csh(1)
unalias
Discard an alias, see csh(1)
uncompress
compress or expand files, display expanded contents
unix2dos
convert text file from ISO format to DOS format
unlimit
Remove a limit on a resource, see csh(1)
unset
Discard a shell variable, see csh(1)
unsetenv
Discard an envrionment variable, see csh(1)
uptime
show how long the system has been up
users
display a compact list of users logged in
uudecode
encode a binary file, or decode its ASCII representation
uuencode
encode a binary file, or decode its ASCII representation
vacation
reply to mail automatically
w
who is logged in, and what are they doing
wall
write to all users logged in
wc
display a count of lines, words and characters
whatis
display a one-line summary about a keyword
whereis
locate the binary, source, and manual page for a command
which
locate a command; display its pathname or alias
who
who is logged in on the system
whoami
display the effective current username
whois
Internet user name directory service
write
write a message to another user
Continue Reading

Salary packaging for social workers in Australia

http://www.dassi.com.au/docs/salary-packaging-app-form.pdf

http://www.centrecare.com.au/resources/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Social%20Worker%20EXP%2031012011.pdf

http://www.communitysalarypackaging.com.au/EmployeeInformation/WorkedSalaryPackagingExample/tabid/65/Default.aspx

http://www.centacare.woll.catholic.org.au/uploads/file/Salary%20Packaging%20for%20Centacare%20Employees.pdf

http://www.novita.org.au/library/Maxxia-Mini_Guide.pdf

http://www.cbb.com.au/cbbspackaging/pdf/faq.pdf

SMS MIN BENEFIT > 5K

tax-free salary pkging benefits up to $16,050 p/a

What are fringe benefits? 

The most common fringe benefits are expense payment reimbursements.  Expense payment 
reimbursements include personal expenses paid by an employer on behalf of a staff 
member.  For example, payment of home mortgage repayments, private health insurance, 
children’s school fees and so on.  Payment of personal expenses can be made either directly 
by the employer to the supplier, or the employer can reimburse the cost of the expense to the 
staff member. 
 
Why package personal expenses? 
Depending on the expense, substantial savings can be made by staff from having 
Centrecare pay personal expenses on their behalf. 
By agreeing to take the lower cash salary of $25,000 and have Centrecare make their 
mortgage payments as part of their salary package, this staff member will save $3,150 (after 
tax) per year.  Looked at another way, the gain equates to a 13.1% pay rise and has 
increased the market value of the staff member’s remuneration from $35,000 to $39,600
 
OzChild has very generous salary packaging provisions for staff, permitting staff to salary package 
$16,050 per annum.  This equates to approximately $6,000 in addition to the gross SACS Award 
rate.  Staff may also elect to package items such meal entertainment and venue hire; this is in 
addition to the salary packaging. 

Continue Reading